Purpose

This is to create a web application in Java. The Apache Tomcat will be emddeded to the JAR (not WAR), called uber/fat JAR. Other dependencies, if there is any, will also be included.

We will create a page with the following URL:

http://localhost:8080/app/

This page will display an introduction about embedding Tomcat with Java Web application. This also include button that is link to Books page.

Book page is a list of books with columns: ID, Title, Edition and Action button that when clicked will display a modal consisting more information about selected book.

Requirements

  • JDK 8
  • Maven
  • an IDE - Eclipse (Or NetBeans, Intellij IDEA, if you prefer)

Build with Maven

First, we’ll create a Java Maven project. Open your terminal and cd to your preferred workspace and run the following commands:

$ mkdir java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat
$ cd java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat
$ mkdir -p src/main/java/io/github/julinjupiter/app
$ mkdir src/main/resources
$ mkdir -p src/main/webapp/WEB-INF
$ touch pom.xml

Note: you can choose your own package instead of io/github/julianjupiter/app (io.github.julinjupiter.app)

The project structure should now be:

    java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat
    └── src
        └── main
            └── java
                └── io
                    └── github
                        └── julianjupiter
                            └── app
            └── resources
            └── webapp
                └── WEB-INF
    └── pom.xml

Open pom.xml using your favorite editor (mine is Visual Studio Code). Copy and paste the following XML.

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>io.github.julianjupiter</groupId>
  <artifactId>java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat</artifactId>
  <version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>jar</packaging>

  <name>java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat</name>
  <description>Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat.</description>

  <properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
		<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
		<maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
		<maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
		<failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
		<tomcat.version>9.0.36</tomcat.version>
        <slf4j.version>1.7.30</slf4j.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.apache.tomcat.embed</groupId>
			<artifactId>tomcat-embed-core</artifactId>
			<version>${tomcat.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.apache.tomcat.embed</groupId>
			<artifactId>tomcat-embed-jasper</artifactId>
			<version>${tomcat.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
			<version>1.2</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>jakarta.json.bind</groupId>
			<artifactId>jakarta.json.bind-api</artifactId>
			<version>1.0.2</version>
		</dependency>				
		<dependency>
		    <groupId>org.eclipse</groupId>
		    <artifactId>yasson</artifactId>
		    <version>1.0.7</version>
		</dependency>		
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish</groupId>
			<artifactId>jakarta.json</artifactId>
			<version>1.1.6</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
			<artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
			<version>${slf4j.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
			<artifactId>jcl-over-slf4j</artifactId>
			<version>${slf4j.version}</version>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<resources>
			<resource>
				<directory>src/main/webapp</directory>
				<targetPath>META-INF/resources</targetPath>
			</resource>
			<resource>
				<directory>src/main/resources</directory>
			</resource>
		</resources>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
				<artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.2.4</version>
				<configuration>
					<createDependencyReducedPom>true</createDependencyReducedPom>
					<filters>
						<filter>
							<artifact>*:*</artifact>
							<excludes>
								<exclude>META-INF/*.SF</exclude>
								<exclude>META-INF/*.DSA</exclude>
								<exclude>META-INF/*.RSA</exclude>
							</excludes>
						</filter>
					</filters>
				</configuration>
				<executions>
					<execution>
						<phase>package</phase>
						<goals>
							<goal>shade</goal>
						</goals>
						<configuration>
							<createDependencyReducedPom>false</createDependencyReducedPom>
							<transformers>
								<transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ServicesResourceTransformer"/>
								<transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">
									<mainClass>io.github.julianjupiter.app.Main</mainClass>
								</transformer>
							</transformers>
						</configuration>
					</execution>
				</executions>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

Take note that our packaging is jar and we are using Maven Shade Plugin here to package our application into JAR. From its website, it reads:

This plugin provides the capability to package the artifact in an uber-jar, including its dependencies and to shade - i.e. rename - the packages of some of the dependencies.

Another thing worth to mention is the mainClass tag where we define our class with main method.

Lastly, we include at least two dependencies for embedding Tomcat: tomcat-embed-core, tomcat-embed-jasper.

Import to Eclipse

To import the project:

Eclipse - File > Import… > Maven > Existing Maven Projects > Browse … (for Root Directory) > Finish

Let’s Start Coding

Server

Create a package server under app. Under this package, we will have an interface Server and class TomcatServer. The interface will have one abstract method, run which will serve as entry point to start our Tomcat server. This opens a possibility to add more servers other than Tomcat, either from scratch or use existing ones (Jetty, Undertow).

Server.java
package io.github.julianjupiter.app.server;

public interface Server {
    public void run(String[] args);
}
TomcatServer.java
package io.github.julianjupiter.app.server;

import java.io.File;

import org.apache.catalina.Context;
import org.apache.catalina.LifecycleException;
import org.apache.catalina.WebResourceRoot;
import org.apache.catalina.startup.Tomcat;
import org.apache.catalina.webresources.DirResourceSet;
import org.apache.catalina.webresources.StandardRoot;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

public class TomcatServer implements Server {

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(TomcatServer.class);
    private static final String DEFAULT_HOST = "localhost";
    private static final int DEFAULT_PORT = 8080;
    private static final String DEFAULT_CONTEXT_PATH = "/app";
    private static final String DOC_BASE = ".";
    private static final String ADDITION_WEB_INF_CLASSES = "target/classes";
    private static final String WEB_APP_MOUNT = "/WEB-INF/classes";
    private static final String INTERNAL_PATH = "/";

    @Override
    public void run(String[] args) {
        int port = port(args);
        Tomcat tomcat = tomcat(port);

        try {
            tomcat.start();
        } catch (LifecycleException exception) {
            LOGGER.error("{}", exception.getMessage());
            LOGGER.error("Exit...");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        LOGGER.info("Application started with URL {}.", DEFAULT_HOST + ":" + port + DEFAULT_CONTEXT_PATH);
        LOGGER.info("Hit Ctrl + D or C to stop it...");
        tomcat.getServer().await();
    }

    private int port(String[] args) {
        if (args.length > 0) {
            String port = args[0];
            try {
                return Integer.valueOf(port);
            } catch (NumberFormatException exception) {
                LOGGER.error("Invalid port number argument {}", port, exception);
            }
        }

        return DEFAULT_PORT;
    }

    private Tomcat tomcat(int port) {
        Tomcat tomcat = new Tomcat();
        tomcat.setHostname(DEFAULT_HOST);
        tomcat.getHost().setAppBase(DOC_BASE);
        tomcat.setPort(port);
        tomcat.getConnector();
        context(tomcat);

        return tomcat;
    }

    private Context context(Tomcat tomcat) {
        Context context = tomcat.addWebapp(DEFAULT_CONTEXT_PATH, DOC_BASE);
        File classes = new File(ADDITION_WEB_INF_CLASSES);
        String base = classes.getAbsolutePath();
        WebResourceRoot resources = new StandardRoot(context);
        resources.addPreResources(new DirResourceSet(resources, WEB_APP_MOUNT, base, INTERNAL_PATH));
        context.setResources(resources);

        return context;
    }
}
Main.java

We will now create our main class as defined by mainClass in pom.xml.

As this class contains main method, this will serve as entry point to start our application and the server. Here, we instantiate the TomcatServer class and call run method. We pass in args argument from main method to run method. By default, the server will listen on port 8080 but we can override it by passing desired port number to our main method. This is optional, though (stick to 8080).

package io.github.julianjupiter.app;

import io.github.julianjupiter.app.server.Server;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.server.TomcatServer;

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Server app = new TomcatServer();
        app.run(args);
    }
}

With the codes above, we can now build and run our application, but since there is no Servlet handler or default JSP page, it will just error page.

To test our application, create a index.jsp file inside webapp folder.

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title>Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Hello, world!</h1>
    </body>
</html>

To build and run the application, run the following commands under the root directory of the project:

$ mvn package
$ java -jar ./target/java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

If the application starts successfully, open your browser: http://localhost:8080/app.




Add Servlet, JSPs and Other Classes

Domain Model

Book.java

This class is simply a POJO as state container of our data.

package io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain;

import javax.json.bind.annotation.JsonbNillable;

@JsonbNillable
public class Book {
    private long id;
    private String title;
    private String edition;

    private String isbn;
    private String author;
    private String yearPublished;

    public long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getTitle() {
        return title;
    }

    public void setTitle(String title) {
        this.title = title;
    }

    public String getEdition() {
        return edition;
    }

    public String getIsbn() {
        return isbn;
    }

    public void setIsbn(String isbn) {
        this.isbn = isbn;
    }

    public void setEdition(String edition) {
        this.edition = edition;
    }

    public String getAuthor() {
        return author;
    }

    public void setAuthor(String author) {
        this.author = author;
    }

    public String getYearPublished() {
        return yearPublished;
    }

    public void setYearPublished(String yearPublished) {
        this.yearPublished = yearPublished;
    }
}

Repository

These serve our repository. However, the data is just a dummy for this demo.

BookRepository.java
    package io.github.julianjupiter.app.repository;

    import java.util.Optional;

    import io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain.Book;

    public interface BookRepository {

        Iterable<Book> findAll();

        Optional<Book> findById(long id);

    }
BookRepositoryImpl.java
package io.github.julianjupiter.app.repository;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Optional;

import io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain.Book;

public class BookRepositoryImpl implements BookRepository {

    private static List<Book> bookList = new ArrayList<>();

    static {
        Book book1 = new Book();
        book1.setId(1L);
        book1.setTitle("Beginning Spring Boot 2");
        book1.setIsbn("978-1-4842-2930-9");
        book1.setAuthor("K. Siva Prasad Reddy");
        book1.setYearPublished("2017");

        Book book2 = new Book();
        book2.setId(2L);
        book2.setTitle("Effective Java");
        book2.setEdition("Third Edition");
        book2.setIsbn("978-0-13-468599-1");
        book2.setAuthor("Joshua Block");
        book2.setYearPublished("2018");

        Book[] books = { book1, book2 };
        bookList = Arrays.asList(books);
    }

    @Override
    public Iterable<Book> findAll() {
        return bookList;
    }

    @Override
    public Optional<Book> findById(long id) {
        return bookList.stream()
            .filter(book -> book.getId() == id)
            .findFirst();
    }

}

Service

These serve as intermediary between our controller and repository.

BookService.java
package io.github.julianjupiter.app.service;

import java.util.Optional;

import io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain.Book;

public interface BookService {

    Iterable<Book> findAll();

    Optional<Book> findById(long id);

}
BookServiceImpl.java
package io.github.julianjupiter.app.service;

import java.util.Optional;

import io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain.Book;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.repository.BookRepository;

public class BookServiceImpl implements BookService {

    private BookRepository bookRepository;

    public BookServiceImpl(BookRepository bookRepository) {
        this.bookRepository = bookRepository;
    }

    @Override
    public Iterable<Book> findAll() {
        return this.bookRepository.findAll();
    }

    @Override
    public Optional<Book> findById(long id) {
        return this.bookRepository.findById(id);
    }

}
Controller
BaseController.java

We’ll create a base controller that will contain common properties and methods to be used by our controller. We extends this class with HttpServlet so that any class (controller) that extends it becomes an Servlet too.

package io.github.julianjupiter.app.controller;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

public class BaseController extends HttpServlet {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 632349127293785744L;
    private static final String VIEW_PREFIX = "/WEB-INF/templates/";
    private static final String VIEW_SUFFIX = ".jsp";

    protected String getAction(HttpServletRequest request) {
        String action = request.getParameter("action");

        return (action == null) || action.isEmpty() ? "" : action;
    }

    protected void render(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, String template) throws ServletException, IOException {
        getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher(VIEW_PREFIX + template + VIEW_SUFFIX).forward(request, response);
    }

    public void redirect(HttpServletResponse response, String path) throws IOException {
        response.sendRedirect(path);
    }

}
BookController.java

The BookController extends BaseController class to become a Servlet. This will serve as the controller. Since our application will only display list of books and individual book, only doGet method will be implemented. This method intercepts all HTTP GET request.

package io.github.julianjupiter.app.controller;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.time.ZonedDateTime;
import java.util.Optional;

import javax.json.bind.Jsonb;
import javax.json.bind.JsonbBuilder;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

import io.github.julianjupiter.app.domain.Book;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.repository.BookRepositoryImpl;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.service.BookService;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.service.BookServiceImpl;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.util.Error;
import io.github.julianjupiter.app.util.ErrorResponse;

@WebServlet(name = "bookController", urlPatterns = "/books")
public class BookController extends BaseController {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -8199839431714257029L;
    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(BookController.class);
    private final BookService bookService;

    public BookController() {
        this.bookService = new BookServiceImpl(new BookRepositoryImpl());
    }

    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        String action = this.getAction(request);
        switch (action) {
            case "":
            case "list":
                try {
                    this.findAll(request, response);
                } catch (Exception exception) {
                    LOGGER.error(exception.getMessage());
                }

                break;
            case "view":
                try {
                    this.findById(request, response);
                } catch (Exception exception) {
                    LOGGER.error(exception.getMessage());
                }

                break;

            default:
                try {
                    response.setStatus(404);
                    this.render(request, response, "error/404");
                } catch (Exception exception) {
                    LOGGER.error(exception.getMessage());
                }

                break;
        }

    }

    private void findAll(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        Iterable<Book> books = this.bookService.findAll();
        request.setAttribute("pageName", "Books");
        request.setAttribute("books", books);
        this.render(request, response, "book/list");
    }

    private void findById(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
        String id = request.getParameter("id");
        long bookId = Long.parseLong(id);
        Optional<Book> book = this.bookService.findById(bookId);
        String bookJson;
        try(Jsonb jsonbObject = JsonbBuilder.create()) {
            if (book.isPresent()) {
                response.setStatus(200);
                bookJson = jsonbObject.toJson(book.get());
            } else {
                response.setStatus(404);
                ErrorResponse errorResponse = new ErrorResponse();
                Error error = new Error();
                error.setMessage("Book with ID " + id + " was not found.");
                error.setCreatedAt(ZonedDateTime.now());
                errorResponse.setError(error);
                bookJson = jsonbObject.toJson(error);
            }
        }
        response.setContentType("application/json");
        response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");
        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        out.print(bookJson);
        out.flush();
    }

}

Templates

Our templates will be written in JSP.

Let’s create first templates folder under /webapp/WEB-INF. Under this new folder, we’ll create four (4) folders - book, components, error, and includes.

The new structure of our Maven project:

java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat
└── src
    └── main
        └── java
            └── io
                └── github
                    └── julianjupiter
                        └── app
                            └── controller
                            └── domain
                            └── repository
                            └── server
                            └── service
                            └── util
        └── resources
        └── webapp
            └── WEB-INF
                └── templates
                    └── book
                    └── components
                    └── error
                    └── includes
└── pom.xml
includes

These are the common parts of a page.

init.jsp
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core"%>
header.jsp
<%@ include file="init.jsp"%>
<c:if test="${not empty param.pageName}">
    <c:set var="pageName" value="${param.pageName}" />
</c:if>
<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
        <meta name="description" content="">
        <meta name="author" content="">
        <link rel="icon" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/images/favicon.ico">
        <title>${pageName} - Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/vendor/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/css/main.css">
      </head>
    <body>
        <header>
            <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
                <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Java Web Application</a>
                  <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarNavAltMarkup" aria-controls="navbarNavAltMarkup" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
                    <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
                  </button>
                  <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarNavAltMarkup">
                    <div class="navbar-nav">
                        <a class="nav-item nav-link<c:if test="${pageName == 'Home'}"> active</c:if>" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/" alt="Home">Home <span class="sr-only">(current)</span></a>
                          <a class="nav-item nav-link<c:if test="${pageName == 'Books'}"> active</c:if>" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/books" alt="Books">Books</a>
                    </div>
                  </div>
            </nav>
        </header>
footer.jsp
        <script src="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/vendor/jquery/jquery-3.3.1.slim.min.js"></script>
        <script src="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/vendor/popper.js/1.14.3/umd/popper.min.js"></script>
        <script src="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/vendor/bootstrap/4.1.3/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
        <script src="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/assets/js/main.js"></script>
    </body>
</html>
error

404.jsp

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title>Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Error 404, Page not found!</h1>
    </body>
</html>
components

These are components used by our pages - modal, table.

bookModal.jsp
<div class="modal fade" id="bookModal" tabindex="-1" role="dialog" aria-labelledby="bookModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
    <div class="modal-dialog" role="document">
        <div class="modal-content">
                <div class="modal-header">
                <h5 class="modal-title" id="bookModalLabel"></h5>
                <button type="button" class="close" data-dismiss="modal" aria-label="Close">
                    <span aria-hidden="true">&times;</span>
                </button>
                </div>
                <div class="modal-body">
            </div>
            <div class="modal-footer">
            </div>
        </div>
        </div>
</div>
viewBookTable.jsp
<div id="viewBookTable" class="table-responsive" style="display:none;">
    <table class="table table-hover table-borderless">
        <tbody>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">ID</th>
                <td id="bookId"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">Title</th>
                <td id="bookTitle"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">Edition</th>
                <td id="bookEdition"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">ISBN</th>
                <td id="bookIsbn"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">Author</th>
                <td id="bookAuthor"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th class="text-right" scope="row">Year Published</th>
                <td id="bookYearPublished"></td>
            </tr>
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>
book

This template will be used by our page pertaining to Book in our application.

list.jsp
<%@ include file="/WEB-INF/templates/includes/header.jsp"%>
<div class="jumbotron jumbotron-fluid">
    <div class="container">
        <h1 class="display-4">Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat</h1>
        <p class="lead">This is a web application in Java which runs on embedded Apache Tomcat in the form of executable JAR (not WAR), called uber/fat JAR. Other dependencies, if any, are also included.</p>
      </div>
</div>
<main>
    <div class="container">
        <div class="row">
            <div class="col">
                <table class="table table-hover">
                    <thead>
                        <tr>
                            <th scope="col">ID</th>
                              <th scope="col">Title</th>
                              <th scope="col">Edition</th>
                              <th scope="col">Action</th>
                        </tr>
                    </thead>
                      <tbody>
                          <c:forEach var="book" items="${books}">
                        <tr>
                              <th scope="row">${book.id}</th>
                              <td>${book.title}</td>
                              <td>${book.edition}</td>
                              <td>
                                  <div class="btn-group" role="group" aria-label="Basic example">
                                    <button type="button" class="btn btn-info" data-toggle="modal" data-target="#bookModal" data-book-action="viewBook" data-book-id="${book.id}">View</button>
                                </div>
                              </td>
                        </tr>
                        </c:forEach>
                      </tbody>
                </table>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
</main>
<%@ include file="/WEB-INF/templates/components/bookModal.jsp"%>
<%@ include file="/WEB-INF/templates/components/viewBookTable.jsp"%>
<%@ include file="/WEB-INF/templates/includes/footer.jsp"%>

Default Page

index.jsp

This is the default page in our application if we access http://localhost:8080/app.

Remember the index.jsp that we created earlier to test our application? We just need to modify that file.

<jsp:include page="/WEB-INF/templates/includes/header.jsp">
    <jsp:param value="Home" name="pageName"/>
</jsp:include>
        <div class="jumbotron jumbotron-fluid">
            <div class="container">
                <h1 class="display-4">Java Web Application with Embedded Tomcat</h1>
                <p class="lead">This is a web application in Java which runs on embedded Apache Tomcat in the form of executable JAR (not WAR), called uber/fat JAR. Other dependencies, if any, are also included.</p>
                <a type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/books" alt="Books">Books</a>
            </div>
        </div>
<%@ include file="/WEB-INF/templates/includes/footer.jsp"%>

Static Files

Our pages will make use of JavaScript and CSS. It includes Bootstrap CSS framework, hence, the need to import them.

Let’s create assets folder under /webapp. Under this new folder, we’ll create three (3) folders - css, js, and vendor.

Our custom styling and JavaScript files will, obviously, be put inside css and js folders, respectively, while the third-party ones, Bootstrap, jQuery, Popper.js, will be in vendor folder.

The new structure of our Maven project:

java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat
└── src
    └── main
        └── java
            └── io
                └── github
                    └── julianjupiter
                        └── app
                            └── controller
                            └── domain
                            └── repository
                            └── server
                            └── service
                            └── util
        └── resources
        └── webapp
            └── assets
                └── css
                └── js
                └── vendor
            └── WEB-INF
                └── templates
                    └── book
                    └── components
                    └── error
                    └── includes
└── pom.xml
css
main.css
.table-responsive {
  display: table;
}
js
main.js
let modalTitle = $(".modal-title");
let modalBody = $(".modal-body");
let modalFooter = $(".modal-footer");
let closeBookModal = $(
  '<button id="close-book-modal" type="button" class="btn btn-secondary" data-dismiss="modal">Close</button>'
);

function viewBook(bookModal, bookId) {
  let viewBookTableHidden = $("#viewBookTable:hidden");
  $(bookModal).find(modalTitle).text("View Book");
  $(bookModal).find(modalBody).html(viewBookTableHidden.clone());
  let viewBookTable = $("#viewBookTable");
  $(bookModal).find(viewBookTable).css("display", "block");
  $(bookModal).find(modalFooter).append(closeBookModal);

  fetch("books?action=view&id=" + bookId)
    .then((response) => ({ status: response.status, data: response.json() }))
    .then((response) => {
      if (response.status == 200) {
        response.data.then((value) => {
          $(bookModal).find("#bookId").text(value.id);
          $(bookModal).find("#bookTitle").text(value.title);
          $(bookModal).find("#bookEdition").text(value.edition);
          $(bookModal).find("#bookIsbn").text(value.isbn);
          $(bookModal).find("#bookAuthor").text(value.author);
          $(bookModal).find("#bookYearPublished").text(value.yearPublished);
        });
      } else if (response.status == 404) {
        response.data.then((value) => {
          $(bookModal).find(".modal-body").html(value.message);
        });
      } else {
        $(bookModal)
          .find(".modal-body")
          .html("An unknown error occurred. Please contact Administrator.");
      }
    })
    .catch((error) => {
      console.log("Request failed", error);
      $(bookModal)
        .find(".modal-body")
        .html("An unknown error occurred. Please contact Administrator.");
    });
}

function clearModal(modal) {
  $(modal).find(modalTitle).html("");
  $(modal).find(modalBody).html("");
  $(modal).find(modalFooter).html("");
}

$(document).ready(() => {
  $("#bookModal")
    .on("show.bs.modal", function (event) {
      var bookModal = $(this);
      var button = $(event.relatedTarget);
      var bookAction = button.data("book-action");
      var bookId = button.data("book-id");

      switch (bookAction) {
        case "addBook":
          addBook(bookModal);
          break;

        case "viewBook":
          viewBook(this, bookId);
          break;
      }
    })
    .on("hidden.bs.modal", function (event) {
      clearModal(this);
    });
});
vendor

For the Bootstrap, jQuery, and Popper.js, you can download them from their respective sites.

Check header.jsp and footer.jsp files how these frameworks/libraries structured in our project.

Re-build and Run our Application

Run the following commands and open http://localhost:8080/app in our browser.

$ mvn clean package
$ java -jar ./target/java-web-app-with-embedded-tomcat-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

Screenshots

Home Page




List of Books




View a Book




Conclusion

We’re able to create a Servlet application in which we use Embedded Tomcat Server. We build this application into a single JAR file, called Uber or Fat JAR.

With this, we no longer need a standalone web server to deploy our application to. We achieved this mechanism by using Maven Shade Plugin.

You can download complete source code here.